ROI competence wheel

Efficient consulting at the highest level requires not only specific industry know-how but also in-depth technological expertise, management and methodological competence.

With more than 3,000 successful projects, ROI has extensive expertise and cross-sector experience in the areas of Global Footprint, Research & Development, Manufacturing & Logistics, Supply Chain Management and Digitization & Industry 4.0.

Our projects are characterised by holistic, sustainable and individual solutions, low-investment, robust concepts and concrete improvements at the grassroots level.

Discover our areas of expertise and find out what challenges our consulting solutions can help you meet:

to the competence wheel

Digitization maturity levels

Smart Factory

Digital twins

Smart products

Data analytics

IT architecture & platforms

Agile organisation and transformation

Compliance and security in manufacturing

Measurement and evaluation of digitization maturity levels

A systematic maturity analysis is the starting point for a sustainable and viable IoT and Industry 4.0 strategy. With its IoT scan, ROI has developed a methodical and didactically sound instrument for measuring the IoT maturity of companies. The three-phase IoT scan provides a clear picture of the actual situation and derivatives for reaching the subsequent development stages in the areas of organisational structure, IT landscape, corporate culture and process resources:

  • Phase 1: Determination of maturity according to the current Industry 4.0 development stage
  • Phase 2: Determination of the development stages to be achieved and target skills
  • Phase 3: Creating a roadmap with prioritised action areas and harmonisation with the corporate strategy

Smart Factory

The Smart Factory has become synonymous with the networking of business processes, products and their manufacture. IoT or Industry 4.0 technologies, such as digital assistance systems or predictive maintenance approaches, offer huge potential to increase effectiveness and efficiency in the manufacturing process. ROI supports its customers in planning and implementing smart factory concepts, in particular with regard to:

  • Technology and digitization roadmaps,
  • Integration of Industry 4.0 and lean approaches,
  • Design of the process and structural organisation,
  • Implementation of data analytics and data management,
  • Introduction of predictive maintenance and real-time control.

Digital product and process twins (digital twins)

Digital twins deliver virtual images of products or individual components and thus allow precise predictions about their performance or potential vulnerabilities. Applied to entire processes, virtual simulations of the entire value creation cycle can be digitally mapped in order to identify hidden inefficiencies or to quickly eliminate critical situations in manufacturing processes.  ROI has extensive experience in designing and building digital twins for products, plants and processes. This includes:

  • The analysis and design of business cases for the use of digital product and process twins (digital twins),
  • Vendor-independent technology selection and introduction,
  • Descriptive, predictive and prescriptive data analytics,
  • Implementation taking into account the procedural and organisational characteristics of the respective company, its suppliers and customers.

Developing smart products and services

Thanks to integrated connectivity, sensor technology and data processing, smart products are able to perform autonomous tasks, coordinate themselves decentrally and respond independently to changing environmental conditions. The development of such smart products & services creates completely new requirements for manufacturers. ROI supports its customers in setting up the processes, structures and capabilities necessary for the development of smart products & services. These include:  

  • Interdepartmental and interdisciplinary data usage, system networking and system development,
  • Introduction of agile, continuous and rapid development processes (MVP, design sprints, continuous product development),
  • Agile software development and harmonisation of soft and hardware development and manufacture.

Data analytics

Whether in the context of predictive maintenance, the setting up of digital process twins or the development of smart products and services, effective data analyses are a key success factor in the context of Industry 4.0 and smart factories. ROI supports its customers in the effective and profitable use of data analytics. This ranges from data collection and analysis up to interpretation and impact of the changes induced by data analysis, including:

  • The integration of data from different data sources, 
  • Their visualisations and descriptive analysis in combination, advanced analytics,
  • Stability and sensitivity analyses and regular validation of the forecasting quality.

IT architecture & platforms

The choice of the right IT architecture and platforms is the basis for a comprehensive and consistent networking of the machines, workpieces and entire processes within the framework of Industry 4.0. ROI advises objectively and without any manufacturer bias in the selection and design of an integrated IT/OT landscape and the relevant technology platforms – from the support of strategic planning to machine level. The following issues are at the forefront:

  • Development of a data strategy,
  • Analysis of the existing IT/OT architecture and design of integrated, platform-based IT landscapes,
  • Advice on technology selection,
  • Implementation support and
  • programme management,
  • Supplier coordination and holistic quality assurance.

Agile organisation and transformation

In order to remain capable of action in an age of accelerated market cycles and high volatility and to improve the organisation’s adaptability to external changes, agile management and management methods represent an indispensable capability. ROI guides companies through transformation phases and provides comprehensive support for the sustainable implementation of agile methods. This includes:

  • Analysis and status survey of the organisation,
  • Development of agile target images and organisational forms,
  • Development of a transformation strategy,
  • Comprehensive training and qualification of employees and managers,
  • Coaching and mentoring across all hierarchical levels,
  • Support and monitoring of the transformation,
  • Anchoring agile values and principles in the organisation.

Compliance and security in manufacturing

With the increasing networking of production plants and their connection to systems inside and outside their own network environment in the course of Industry 4.0, these are exposed to the same compliance and security risks as the other IT systems in the company. New security strategies for the Smart Factory are needed to enable efficient and at the same time secure data use in the production context. ROI-EFESO supports its customers in the development of an effective compliance and security strategy for their production. This includes among others

  • Accompanying the commissioning of digital solutions, e.g. by determining the communication requirements and paths as well as the network structure and segmentation requirements including risk assessment to derive a catalogue of measures and a security policy
  • Security management during operation, including monitoring, auditing and regular training
  • Continuous maintenance and updating of the security environment in the event of changes in the threat situation

Global manufacturing footprint



Central and South America

Global manufacturing footprint

The optimal alignment of manufacturing and logistics networks depends on a variety of different factors, which have to be brought into individual balance by global manufacturing footprint projects for each company. These include the appropriate value-added depth, the balance between global and local sourcing as well as the use of country-typical flexibility tools. Taking into account these factors, ROI has developed a modular approach to designing a successful global footprint consisting of three phases: 

  • Phase 1: Specification of requirements for the network
  • Phase 2: Analysis of network performance
  • Phase 3: Development of scenarios to build the footprint

Europe (with Central and Eastern Europe)

Europe is one of the world’s most important industrial regions with a very heterogeneous manufacturing landscape. While the established Western European regions are global leaders in manufacturing and development, sites in Eastern Europe offer immense potential – but also major challenges. ROI has a comprehensive and long-standing knowledge of the developed industrial landscape and the technological, economic, political and cultural environment in Central and also Eastern Europe. Our range of services includes: 

  • Location search and location assessment 
  • Plant planning, automation, storage planning and workplace design
  • Logistical linking and detailed design of manufacturing logistics
  • HR planning and organisation, recruiting
  • Qualification concepts, method room, planning games, employee workshops, etc.
  • Management of dealings with authorities, incl. permits


Asia is the world’s most dynamic growth region, with China as its economic centre. The People’s Republic is not only an important sales market, sourcing, development and production site, but also is also playing an increasing role as a global hotspot for innovation. ROI has been active in China for many years with its own subsidiary. The spectrum of services includes: 

  • Support for site search and set-up
  • Planning and implementation of Industry 4.0, smart factory and IoT initiatives:
  • Planning and development of production systems in accordance with lean management principles specifically customised for China
  • Operational performance improvement (operational excellence/OPEX); processes, organisation, staff, equipment and space productivity
  • Quality offensives and creation of quality management systems
  • Development of a regional development organisation

Central and South America

As a region with enormous natural resources and some very well developed industrial infrastructure, Central and South America are still opening up opportunities for European industrial companies. Mexico in particular, as an interface between North and South America, offers interesting development prospects. However, only for those who have accurate knowledge of the local supplier landscape, infrastructural particularities and cultural specifics. ROI supports companies in setting up locations in Mexico with a broad portfolio of services:  

  • Support for site search and set-up
  • Start-up support for new products or sites (ramp-up management)
  • Integration of the Mexican production site into the global supply chain, taking into account the tax and tariff framework conditions 
  • Operational performance improvement (operational excellence/OPEX) with a focus on processes, organisation, staff, equipment and space productivity
  • Establishment of quality management systems and effective shop floor management
  • Qualification

R&D Strategy

Lean development

Innovation management

Complexity management

Product management

Software development

System life cycle management

Value & Cost Engineering

Consulting: R&D Strategy

In order for R&D strategy to act effectively as a link between corporate strategy and its implementation at the innovation level, comprehensive planning, effective coordination and continuous review of all relevant aspects of research and development are essential. ROI supports companies in formulating, developing and implementing R&D strategies as well as building effective tools for strategy management in global R&D networks. This includes the following areas: 

  • R&D architecture: Organisational and geographical structuring of R&D activities
  • R&D personnel: Recruitment, onboarding and qualification of developer teams
  • R&D portfolio: Specifications regarding the content structure of R&D activities

Consulting: Lean development

Lean development supports an optimised development process by consistently focusing on value-added activities and efficient communication processes. The planning of process architectures and control systems, allows the realisation of short throughput times, efficient circulation and use of knowledge as well as an increase in development quality in the R&D organisation. ROI supports its customers in the design and implementation of lean development programs that allow a holistic optimisation of the areas of strategy, products, processes, projects, organisation and culture in the context of R&D activities. In particular, we rely on risk-dependent design and time-oriented control of development processes.

Consulting: Innovation management

Innovation does not come about by coincidence, but is rather the result of systematic R&D activities and a management system that enables companies to generate a continuous stream of innovations. Five skills are particularly important: The definition of a strategic focus in innovation management, active governance of innovation portfolios, the efficient design of innovation processes, a wide spread of innovation sources and embedding the spirit of innovation in the organisational culture. With regard to these capabilities, ROI supports its customers in innovation management in the following areas:

  • Product structure analyses
  • Competence analyses
  • Development of modular platform concepts
  • Open innovation models
  • Flexible partnership models for development and production 
  • Role models for R&D locations

Complexity management

The design, efficient control and value-oriented development of variant diversity in products, services, processes and resources is a major challenge in the manufacturing industry. ROI supports customers in this area in managing complexity with the help of a comprehensive consulting portfolio. This includes the key areas: 

  • Systematic product planning and intelligent product architectures
  • Building block design and modularisation
  • Variant management and standardisation

Software development

The value-added proportion of software in industrial products is constantly increasing. Software is thus increasingly becoming the defining factor in these goods and the ability to develop software-based products is a decisive competitive advantage. ROI offers companies that need to optimise their software development, technologically and methodologically based support throughout the development life cycle. The following services are at the forefront:

  • Analysis, development and improvement of individual process models for software development,
  • Alignment of the structural and process organisation to ensure effective and efficient software development,
  • Analysis of the tool chain and improvement of tool deployment and tool support for software development.

System life cycle management

The ever more complex, networked product systems of Industry 4.0 require an ongoing life cycle management that enables secure and efficient access to product data over the entire product life cycle. The prerequisite for this is a holistic system life cycle management (SysLM), which enables more effective and efficient cooperation across divisional and company boundaries. ROI supports companies in developing and implementing SysLM solutions, especially with regard to:

  • Strategy development, architecture design, PLM system selection and system integration,
  • The selection of platforms for integrating ALM, PLM and ERP systems,
  • The introduction of the tools and methods of MBSE and end-to-end integration in PLM processes and systems,
  • Optimisation of product architectures and setting up of a cross-domain variant system,
  • The design of collaboration processes and selection of solutions for integration and data exchange.

Value & Cost Engineering

Market upheavals, new competitors or changes in user behavior can lead to products no longer meeting customer expectations in terms of price and functionality. In order to react quickly to such developments, Value & Cost Engineering (VCE) provides suitable instruments with which the relationship between value-adding product features and costs can be optimized. At the same time, it helps to reduce time-to-market and thus secure market shares in highly competitive environments.

ROI-EFESO supports its customers in optimizing their product portfolio, for example by

  • Performing functional cost analyses to create comprehensive cost transparency for all cost types down to the level of individual product functions
  • Measures to optimize manufacturing and product costs, for example through supplier workshops, should costing or cross-functional cost-out workshops
  • Establishment of a VCE organization for the long-term anchoring of VCE measures in the product development process

Operational excellence

Factory planning

Lean production

Shop floor management

Digital shop floor management

Assembly & logistics



Quality & process stability

IT management

Consultation on operational excellence in manufacturing

OPEX makes it possible to align the structures, processes and practices in the company in favour of a learning and continuously improving organisation. The programmes are aimed at optimising the four core elements: organisation, standards, cycle & key figures and leadership excellence. With its five-stage, practice-tested approach, ROI supports its customers in designing an optimal OPEX system and identifying and implementing operational potentials. This includes:

  • Training & transformation
  • Gap and potential analyses 
  • OPEX system 
  • Roll-out planning 
  • Implementation


Planning new factories or restructuring existing sites usually involves managing high complexity and a high level of coordination. An iterative and multi-dimensional approach is therefore required to proactively manage risks over the course of the project and achieve high planning efficiency. ROI supports companies in the process of planning factories and logistics networks. We actively support the entire project implementation as far as the manufacturing ramp-up and onboarding of local suppliers. Our range of services includes: 

  • Strategy development and location selection 
  • Design of production and logistics concepts as well as Industry 4.0 roadmaps 
  • Layout planning and derivation of infrastructure requirements 
  • Implementation support and HR development


The consistent streamlining and standardisation of processes within the framework of lean production increases operational performance and responsiveness through short throughput times and stable processes. ROI helps its customers with the streamlining of manufacturing processes and structures from the initial diagnosis to sustainable and profitable implementation. Here, the focus is on the application of the lean principles, the targeted use of digital technologies, and customer-specific transformation management. Our tailored programmes support you during all phases on the way towards the lean and digital factory:

  • Diagnosis, benchmarking and determination of potential (current state) 
  • Strategy review and target image (vision and target) 
  • Piloting and preparation roll-out (quick impact) 
  • Roll-out and securing of sustainability (sustainable results)


A well thought-out shop floor management system ensures and stabilises the operational control of the value-adding processes through the provision of clear structures, stringent process organisation and working standards and thus acts as a key management instrument in the context of lean production, smart factory and Industry 4.0. ROI supports its customers in the holistic and practical optimisation of their shop floor management. The following issues are at the forefront: 

  • Maturity analysis based on the success criteria of shop floor management and definition of company-specific deployment plans
  • Development of a roadmap for the introduction of a digital shop floor management using Industry 4.0 technologies 
  • Implementation and company-specific adaptation of best practice structures, methods and tools for effective shop floor management
  • Practice-oriented and didactically sound training and qualification programs for the managers of operational units
  • Active and practical support of the implementation


Digital shop floor management expands the classic on-site management with digital technologies and thus creates significantly improved transparency about processes and resources in the shop floor and the levels above it. Real-time-based process and performance indicators and effective knowledge management serve as the basis for rapid problem solving on site. ROI supports its customers in the further development from classical shop floor management approaches to a digitally supported management system. This includes

  • Automated recording of operating and machine data, process parameters, measurement data and material movements as well as ensuring component traceability.
  • Fault and action management, production and staff deployment planning as well as automated identification and analysis of weak points
  • Cross-site consolidation of data sources and user-friendly provision via shop floor boards and apps
  • Securing defined standards and KPIs and real-time visualization of processes, value streams, inventories and ranges as well as implementation of management by exception tools


Modern assembly and logistics systems are the prerequisite for controlling variant diversity, fluctuating numbers and increasing quality requirements. Armed with a comprehensive portfolio of methods and instruments, ROI supports companies from the manufacturing industry in the best-practice design of assembly and logistics processes. Here we rely on a best-practice kit, which is based on the following basic principles: 

  • Clear separation of assembly and logistics
  • Determination of optimal cycle times and work contents per cycle
  • Introduction of one-piece flow
  • Optimal delimitation and integration of pre- and final assembly
  • Constructive automation, low cost intelligent automation
  • Build-in-quality concepts, quality assurance in each cycle, short quality control loops
  • Use of Industry 4.0 technologies and smart tools
  • Pull principle and flexible retrofitting in parts provisioning
  • Standardised and waste-free resupply processes
  • Modular and user-neutral assembly system and workplace design
  • Team-oriented, flexible-capacity organisational concepts
  • Customised qualification concepts and systematic development of decentralised problem-solving and improvement skills


ROM®, the ROI operation sequence method, is a system for analysis and evaluation of all human-influenced work processes in assembly and logistics. It complements classic time management methods such as REFA or MTM and provides guidance for the design of working methods and workplaces. The application areas of ROM® extend from the work structure planning and time determination up to documentation and include the following elements: 

  • Product development/design
  • Workplace and resource design
  • Fast simulation of best practice montages
  • Planning and default times
  • Costing & method comparisons
  • Process description & working instructions


Effective and predictive maintenance, asset and standstill management as well as optimal capacity planning and scheduling gain ever more importance in the context of Industry 4.0 and the smart factory. TPM initiatives therefore support an integrated and cross-departmental system management, which is aimed at a continuous improvement of the overall plant effectiveness or overall system efficiency (OEE). ROI supports its customers in defining and implementing a consistent TPM strategy and continuously boosting OEE. The programme includes the following elements: 

  • Training/qualification of machine operators and maintenance personnel,
  • Improvement of organisation and management in manufacturing and maintenance,
  • Introduction of TPM and KPI-based manufacturing controlling,
  • Development of IT support and implementation of Industry 4.0 systems for collecting and analysing data for predictive maintenance, mobile operator support and life-cycle costing,
  • Definition of spare parts stocking strategies,
  • Targeted in- and outsourcing as well as contractor management,
  • Planning the plant and machine park


With the conflicting demands posed by increasing quality requirements on the one hand and short product and development cycles as well as growing variety of variants on the other, the optimal design of quality management becomes a decisive success factor. ROI supports companies with effective quality management solutions. Here, we rely on a comprehensive methodology kit consisting of: 

  • Preventive safeguarding of product quality and risk management during product development,
  • Quality assurance of purchased parts and supplier development,
  • Introduction of stable manufacturing processes (incl. Six Sigma),
  • Use of Industry 4.0/IoT solutions such as preventive maintenance, preventive quality planning & control, in-line process control, and digital TQM,
  • Programmes for quality cost reduction,
  • Operational quality offensives, process stabilisation,
  • Quality management in indirect business functions,
  • Implementation of a zero error philosophy in the company.


On the one hand, IT systems form the basis for the transformation of classical factories to smart factories. On the other hand, their use can increase the overall complexity of production systems and thus counteract lean principles. ROI supports companies during complex process, organisational and SAP transformation projects with special focus on SAP S/4HANA transformation and links the strengths of classic IT, Industry 4.0 technologies and lean principles. Our consulting offer includes:  

  • Supporting the entire process from the conception of IT architecture to operational implementation
  • Definition of the optimal migration and implementation approach 
  • Mass customisation through horizontal and vertical integration of IT solutions 
  • Digitization of production management and problem-solving processes 
  • Implementation of predictive quality and predictive maintenance
  • Use of big data for forecasts, simulations, and scenario comparisons 
  • Building up innovative IoT services by connecting sensors, products and machines

Supply chain strategy

Network planning

Sales & operation planning

Material handling, warehousing & distribution

Warehouse 4.0

Procurement management

Stock management

Supply chain controlling


A consistent supply chain strategy provides the basis for optimising the value-added network and implementing efficient portfolio management, increased flexibility and adaptability of the supply chain and effective risk management. Using a proven process model, ROI supports its customers in designing a tailor-made supply chain strategy and ensures a connection to supply chain operations, performance management and consistent digitization. Our services include:

  • Alignment of supply chain strategy and corporate strategy,
  • Analysis of the current and future conditions of the value creation network,
  • Customer segmentation,
  • Definition of service levels,
  • Global footprint,
  • Procurement strategy.


The complexity of global logistics networks and their dependence on internal and external conditions require constant review and flexible adaptation, for example by changing the locations, adapting the procurement and distribution organisation, or redesigning the supplier portfolio. ROI provides holistic support for the optimal design of global networks using analytics and simulations. This includes, among other things:  

  • Comprehensive analysis of quantitative and qualitative factors relevant for the design and modification of the global network,
  • On-site scouting using international and local teams,
  • Use of state-of-the-art simulation and analysis software,
  • Access to comprehensive professional data sources,
  • Integration of the planning and simulation results in the supply chain strategy.


As an enterprise-wide, dynamic core process, sales & operations planning forms the basis for the successful management of supply chain networks, for example with regard to fluctuations in procurement and sales markets. The coordination of the processes between the departments involved, their mapping in a corresponding IT landscape as well as the creation of a valid forecast are decisive success factors. ROI helps companies to establish a custom sales & operations planning with the following services: 

  • Determination of the S&OP maturity based on different indicators and KPIs,
  • Optimisation and integration of the relevant IT system landscape, as well as the communications and coordination processes,
  • Ensuring a consistent and valid database as a basis for planning,
  • Balancing on-time delivery, optimisation of stock and productivity in the context of integrated planning processes,


Successful supply chain management requires the optimal design of the material and information flow in storage and distribution logistics. In addition to the optimisation of the material and process costs, the central objectives are the reduction of stocks as part of lean logistics concepts as well as process integration and automation. ROI helps companies during a sustainable process optimisation and efficiency increases in the warehouse logistics with the following services: 

  • Analysis of current warehouse usage, as well as transparent and comprehensive planning in terms of general technical and economic feasibility, dimensioning, warehousing and picking technology, product range allocation;
  • Scenario development for the automation and digitization of inventories and related processes;
  • Planning and implementing lean warehousing and material flow concepts;
  • Support for the network design with its own simulation tool diPlan©.


The connection between Industry 4.0 technologies and lean methods is at the heart of the Warehouse 4.0 approach. Technologies such as dynamic localisation, the use of wearables or the deployment of smart robotics offer optimisation potential in terms of process quality, flexibility and costs in warehouse logistics. ROI supports its customers in implementing Warehouse 4.0 solutions in the following areas: 

  • Warehouse 4.0 design/target image development,
  • Supplier-independent selection of relevant technologies and monitoring implementation,
  • Definition of physical and digital processes and interfaces for the integration of Warehouse 4.0 into the supply chain network,
  • Roll-out planning/transformation roadmap for the warehouses,
  • Implementation of just-in-time (JIT)/just-in-sequence (JIS), vendor-managed inventory (VMI) concepts and lean methods,
  • Virtualisation/digitization of physical processes.


In order to ensure security of supply, transparency, competitive prices and quality in increasingly demanding and difficult forecasting markets, procurement management needs to operate ever more frequently across companies and functions and continuously optimise its processes. ROI supports corporate purchasing to increase its maturity and build an efficient global supplier network. The following issues are at the forefront: 

  • Product group strategy and product group management with a systematic optimisation of procurement costs,
  • Analysis of the global procurement market, definition of best-cost countries and creation of sourcing locations,
  • Selection, development and evaluation of suppliers as part of a holistic supplier management process,
  • Optimisation of processes, interfaces, organisation and risk management in procurement,
  • Development of road maps for positioning procurement as a strategic partner within the entire supply chain,
  • Qualification of procurement employees,
  • Ensuring transparency, responsiveness, efficiency, predictive planning and compliance through the use of state-of-the-art data management and analytics systems.


The reduction in stocks, the establishment of a balance between purchase prices, commitment to funds and security of supply, and the harmonisation of various objectives in sales, purchasing and finance are among the key challenges in inventory management. ROI helps companies with the optimisation of their stock management and working capital management by means of an integrated portfolio of tools and methods. This includes:  

  • Immediate programme of measures to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of receivables and liabilities management,
  • Detailed analysis and segmentation of stock levels as well as ensuring comprehensive transparency across the entire value creation chain,
  • Analysis of the cash-to-cash cycle,
  • Optimisation of cooperation with customers and suppliers (e.g. through the implementation of JIT, JIS, VMI),
  • Determination of dynamic target days’ supplies on the basis of item classes,
  • Improvement of prognosis and planning models and the introduction of highly developed software tools,
  • Reduction of throughput times in all processes,
  • Change management and project-linked qualification measures to ensure the sustainability of the results achieved.


Successful supply chain management requires comprehensive cost and process transparency as well as a holistic and continuous monitoring of all partners participating in the supply network. Key figures such as the logistics cost component, delivery reliability or the flow factor provide the target system for optimising the supply chain performance in terms of costs, quality, flexibility and risks. ROI supports its customers in building and optimising their supply chain controlling systems using a methodological approach based on the following measures and approaches:  

  • Establishment of comprehensive transparency over the entire logistics costs,
  • Establishment of a supply chain controlling function and an intensive employee qualification programme,
  • Optimisation of the network structure by consolidating suppliers or logistics centres,
  • Improvement of processes and organisation for planning and managing the supply chain,
  • Outsourcing of logistics services to leverage synergies and the benefits of specialisation,
  • Targeted analyses of the supplier assortment and development of a warehousing and disposition strategy for the individual items,
  • Days-of-inventory reduction in the outbound area through shorter throughput times and flexible manufacturing systems.